Immuno-oncology involves use of patients’ immune system to fight against cancer. Immuno-oncology uses novel immunotherapies that boost the immune system of patients. These therapies target the immune system of the body instead of the tumors and enable the immune system to recognize and target cancer cells. Immuno-oncology does not affect the functioning of healthy cells as opposed to conventional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Long term response can be generated with the help of these therapies as they provide long-lasting memory to the immune system. Immune system adapts to the cancer over time and provides long term response to the cancer.
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Immuno-Oncology therapy work against a wide variety of cancer, which include non-small cell lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and others. Immuno-oncology uses different types of cell-based immune therapies such as monoclonal antibodies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cytokine based immunotherapy, cancer vaccines, and other therapies. Depending on the functioning of these therapies they are further classified into subtypes such as radiolabeled antibodies, chemo labeled antibodies, and bispecific monoclonal antibodies. Commercially available immune-oncology therapies include Iplimumab, Nivolumab, Rituximab, Blinatumomab, Proleukin, Gardasil, and Kymriah.
Cancer treatment has become more refined with improved treatment success rate due to improved therapeutic outcomes. This has been possible due to deepened understanding of the disease pathophysiology, functioning of the tumor cells, and effective ways to tackle with the same. Immuno-oncology therapies exhibit lesser side effects as compared to conventional cancer therapies such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and others. Immuno-oncology therapy directly target the immune system of the body and does not harm healthy cells in the process, whereas, conventional therapies such as targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy affect cancerous as well as healthy cells extensively.
However, high cost of immuno-oncology therapies, which is unaffordable to low and middle class population is restraining growth of the market. For instance Keytruda (Pembrolizumab), a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of various types of cancer costs around US$ 2,250 for a vial of 50 mg.
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Amgen, Inc. AstraZeneca Plc, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene Corporation, Eli Lilly and Company, Merck & Co., F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Johnson & Johnson, Novartis International AG, AbbVie, Inc., Pfizer Inc., Sanofi S.A., EMD Serono, Inc., Gilead Sciences Inc., Prometheus Therapeutics & Diagnostics, Aduro BioTech, Galena Biopharma, Bavarian Nordic, Celldex Therapeutics, ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, and Incyte.
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